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31 Jan

Ageing is a phenomenon where the physical appearance of an organism changes with time, enhancing the risk of debilitation, sickness, and death. Senescence is comprised of several aging-related symptoms. These days, there’s a lot of talk about halting ageing and what about rejuvenation – reversing the ageing process? Is it possible to turn back time and become biologically youthful?

Anti-ageing VS Rejuvenation

To begin, what else does rejuvenation entail, and how does it differ from anti-ageing?

The conservation or management of ageing biomarker status is referred to as anti-ageing. To assess this, biomarkers of ageing, such as clocks based on DNA modification sequences or the length of telomeres – the protective DNA caps of chromosomes – are often used. Rejuvenation goes further by requiring a considerable, long-term, and systemic reduction in biological age. The remarkable enhancement of regenerative capacity is a more critical element shared by existing and hypothetical rejuvenation therapies. Reversing ageing can entail a decrease in damages at the molecular level, restored cell functioning at the cellular level, and significant physiological improvements at the organismal level.

Rejuvenation Strategies

  • Current longevity therapies have a great deal in common with rejuvenation techniques. Even though most lifespan interventions, unlike regeneration therapies, do not erase biological age, they do diminish some age-related markers, like the frequency of senescent cells and the size and functioning of the stem cell pool.
  • In mice models, several rejuvenation techniques have been demonstrated to correct epigenetic age, enhance cellular stem functions, restore age-related vision loss and extend lifespan.
  • There are a variety of rejuvenation methods available, spanning from the reasonably safe (exercise and supplementation) to the more “dangerous” (gene therapy and organ transplants).

Exercise & Other Physiological Regimens

Different tasks can affect systemic rejuvenation for persons who are unable to exercise. According to a study, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, for example, increases telomeres by 20-38 per cent in various types of immune cells and reduces the dormant cell population by 11-37 independently verified on the kind of cell.

Caloric restriction

Caloric restriction, a decrease of 20–40% of caloric intake without malnutrition, has also been found to prevent the age-induced impacts on tissue regeneration. Caloric restriction, like exercise, has been found to revitalise tissue repair in elderly organisms.

The muscular system and intestinal stem cells both showed signs of regenerative rejuvenation. In the central nervous system — the brain and spinal cord – the impacts of short-range and long calorie reduction on rejuvenation and regeneration can be detected.

NAD+ Homeostasis

Supplementing with NAD+ precursors inappropriate situations may also help to counteract ageing symptoms like telomere lengthening.

Senolytics

  • There is mounting evidence that senescent cells play a negative effect on ageing.
  • Mitochondrial failure, deregulated nutrition sensing, proteostasis loss, epigenetic changes, normal cells become senescent as a result of telomere erosion and genomic fragility, producing paracrine senescence in surrounding normal cells via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP).
  • Senescence-promotion via SASP, combined with a reduction in immune response activity, outcomes in an accumulation of senescent cells in the body.

The Future of Rejuvenation

Overall, rejuvenation therapies hold promise for reversing people’s biological ages, extending their lives and enhancing their health. Several of the underlying mechanisms of rejuvenation, on the other hand, are unclear, and the current detrimental effects caused by specific therapies preclude their widespread use. Existing techniques, such as decreasing the dose and tracking critical parameters regularly, can help alleviate these adverse reactions.

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Reference

Boccardi, V., & Herbig, U. (2012). Telomerase gene therapy: a novel approach to combat aging. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 4(8), 685–687. https://doi.org/10.1002/emmm.201200246

Borghesan, M., Hoogaars, W. M. H., Varela-Eirin, M., Talma, N., & Demaria, M. (2020). A Senescence-Centric View of Aging: Implications for Longevity and Disease. Trends in Cell Biology, 30(10), 777–791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2020.07.002

Bouchard, J., & Villeda, S. A. (2014). Aging and brain rejuvenation as systemic events. Journal of Neurochemistry, 132(1), 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.12969

Zhang, B., Trapp, A., Kerepesi, C., & Gladyshev, V. N. (2021). Emerging rejuvenation strategies—Reducing the biological age. Aging Cell, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13538

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